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Before taking on an assignment you will look over the content and only use the references and resources provided in the attachments. NO OUTSIDE SOURCES ALLOWED!! After reading

Before taking on an assignment you will look over the content and only use the references and resources provided in the attachments. NO OUTSIDE SOURCES ALLOWED!!

After reading the required background resources for this Module, use additional peer-reviewed/scholarly sources to discuss the impacts of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Include both the realized benefits and also the difficulties experienced by those who are being mandated to participate. Should health insurance be mandatory – why or why not? Explain, and justify your position in a 200-word summary, using facts from peer-reviewed sources to support your explanations and position.

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Required Reading/Viewing

Please review the following materials in this order and access via ProQuest where no link is provided:

Frean, M., Gruber, J., & Sommers, B. D. (2017). Premium subsidies, the mandate, and Medicaid expansion: Coverage effects of the Affordable Care Act.  Journal of Health Economics, Vol. 53, 72-86. Available in the Trident Online Library.

· View:  Kristin L. Reiter, & Paula H. Song. (2021). Chapter 1: Healthcare finance basics in  Gapenski’s Healthcare Finance: An Introduction to Accounting and Financial Management, 7th edition. AUPHA/HAP Book. Available in the Trident Online Library. 

· Kaiser Family Foundation. (2019).  Health insurance coverage of the total population . Available at  https://www.kff.org/other/state-indicator/total-population/?activeTab=map&currentTimeframe=0&selectedDistributions =employer&sortModel=%7B%22colId%22:%22Location%22,%22sort%22:%22asc%22%7D

Sommers, B. D., Gawande, A. A., & Baicker, K. (2017). Health insurance coverage and health: What the recent evidence tells us.  The New England Journal of Medicine, 377(6), 586-593. Available in the Trident Online Library.

· U.S. Census. (2018).  Health insurance coverage in the United States: 2017.  Available at  https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2018/demo/p60-264.html


The PPACA, also known as Obamacare, has certainly generated varied opinions. Here’s my attempt to outline its different aspects in a way that reflects your voice:


1. Improved Access to Healthcare: One of the key goals of the PPACA is to ensure that more Americans have access to healthcare. It achieved this by expanding Medicaid eligibility and establishing health insurance marketplaces, making it easier for individuals to find and purchase affordable health plans.

2. Pre-existing Conditions Coverage: Before the PPACA, individuals with pre-existing conditions often struggled to get health insurance coverage. The act ensured that insurance companies cannot deny coverage or charge higher premiums based on pre-existing conditions, providing much-needed relief for those who require ongoing medical care.

3. Preventive Services Coverage: The PPACA emphasizes the importance of preventive care, aiming to catch health problems early on. It mandated that preventive services, like vaccinations and screenings, be covered at no additional cost to the patient, promoting overall wellness.


1. Cost Concerns: While the intention behind the PPACA was to make healthcare more affordable, some argue that it has led to increased premiums and out-of-pocket costs for certain individuals or families. This issue has caused frustration for those who do not qualify for subsidies and are unable to find plans that suit their needs.

2. Individual Mandate: One provision that generated considerable debate was the individual mandate, which required most Americans to have health insurance or face penalties. Critics argue that this mandate infringed on individual freedom and imposed unwanted costs on those who chose not to obtain coverage.

3. Complex Implementation: The PPACA is a complex piece of legislation, and its implementation has been met with numerous challenges. From technical difficulties with the healthcare.gov website to confusion regarding policy details, this complexity has created a learning curve for both patients and healthcare providers.





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