Describe and rationalize how you can organize your classroom to create a learning environment with a pleasant atmosphere that maximizes on-task behavior, increases the likelihood of appr

  • Prompt: Describe and rationalize how you can organize your classroom to create a learning environment with a pleasant atmosphere that maximizes on-task behavior, increases the likelihood of appropriate behavior, and minimizes disruptions.
  • Requirements: Include the grade level of your students, environmental conditions, specific seating arrangements for 2-3 particular activities, furniture/equipment, and materials. Include an APA-formatted cover page, citations (where appropriate), and a References page.
  • Length: long enough to cover each topic, short enough to be interesting
  • attachment


PrinciPles of classroom management

a Professional Decision-making moDel

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S e v e n t h E d i t i o n

James Levin Pennsylvania State University

James F. Nolan Pennsylvania State University

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Levin, James Principles of classroom management : a professional decision-making model/James Levin,

Pennsylvania State University, James F. Nolan, Pennsylvania State University.—Seventh edition. p. cm. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-286862-4 ISBN-10: 0-13-286862-8 1. Classroom management—United States—Problems, exercises, etc. 2. Teaching— United States—Problems, exercises, etc. I. Title. LB3013.L475 2014 371.102’40973—dc23 2012036986

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ISBN-10: 0-13-286862-8 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-286862-4

To Sylvia and Herman Levin, Jim and Mary Nolan, Rocky and Andy, Heidi, Sarah, Geoff and Dan for their support, encouragement, and understanding.

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Principles of Classroom Management: A Professional Decision-Making Model offers teachers an alternative to the coercive cookbook approach that is common in many popular classroom management texts. Rather than assuming that children need to be controlled through the teacher’s use of rewards and punishments, this text asserts that children are better influenced to behave appropriately through the use of competent instruction, positive student-teacher-family relationships, intrinsic motivation, pro-social self-esteem, encouragements and natural/logical consequences. Similarly, rather than treating teachers like technicians by providing them with a cookbook of steps or strategies to follow, this text asserts that teachers are professionals. Therefore, the text expands on a variety of principles, theoretical perspectives, and empirical findings so that teachers have a depth and breadth of knowledge from which they are able to make professional decisions with respect to classroom behavior issues.

As in the previous editions, in this seventh edition, we identify and expand on two foundational beliefs that guide teachers’ behavior. First and foremost, we believe that teachers cannot control student behavior. Thus, teachers influence student behavioral change by controlling or managing their own behavior, that is, by making profes- sional decisions. Throughout the entire text, the reader will encounter language that consistently emphasizes the teacher’s responsibility to make decisions and act in ways that will influence students to behave appropriately and be successful academically. Second, students who enjoy positive relationships with teachers are more likely to be successful academically and engage in pro-social behavior. Such positive relationships are potentially jeopardized by rewards and punishments and are likely enhanced by encouragements and natural/logical consequences.

What’s NeW iN this editioN

Although the basic approach of the text and the underlying principles remain consistent, we have made several changes, which were sparked by contemporary educational issues, comments from educators who have used the text, and detailed reviews of the sixth edition.

Based on feedback from the users and reviewers of the text, and the authors’ own experiences, we made the following changes:

• Although the authors have always believed that students choose how to behave and that the teacher’s role is to influence student behavior, we noted in previous editions of the text that the language did not always match those beliefs. In previous editions of the text, we sometimes talked about managing behavior or coping with behavior. In this edition, we have worked diligently to ensure that the language throughout the text conveys the message that the teacher’s role is to use professional knowledge to decide how to act in order to influence students to choose to behave appropriately. This change in language is exemplified in the new titles for Chapters 8, 9, and 10.


vi Preface

• The power of building positive relationships with students and their families has taken a much more prominent role in the earlier chapters of this edition of the text. This edition also devotes an entire chapter, Chapter 7, to relationship build- ing as well as devoting considerable attention to various dimensions of proactively building positive relationships in Chapters 3, 4, 5, and in working with students who display unremitting disruptive behavior in Chapters 10 and 11.

• In contrast to many texts that provide a list of do’s and don’ts for building relationships, Chapter 7 in this text is intended to enable the teacher to generate strategies for relationship building by using professional knowledge about authority bases, self-esteem, and motivation. By employing professional knowl- edge, the teacher can create respectful and caring relationships, enhance student success expectations through the development of an internal locus of control, and influence the development of an internal value structure that enhances the value of desired student outcomes.

• The role of culture and cultural differences has been taken up more prominently in this edition. As the teaching force in the United States has become increasingly more white and middle class, the students in our nation’s classrooms have become more culturally diverse and poorer. Thus, it is critically important that teachers understand the role that culture can and should play in thinking about how they should behave in order to influence students to choose to behave appropriately and to expend effort to be successful academically. In this seventh edition, the role of culture and cultural differences is discussed in reference to many topics, including understanding student behavior, appropriate use of teacher authority bases, teacher expectations, building relationships, breaking the cycle of discour- agement, and in working positively with families.

• In the sixth edition of the text, we provided three cases, one elementary, one middle, and one high school, that could be used for iterative analysis on the part of the reader as a way of assessing how the text was influencing the reader’s understanding of and response to the cases. In this edition, we have included six cases for iterative analysis, two at each level.

• In each chapter of this edition, we have also provided pre- and postreading activ- ities focused on the “Principles of Teacher Behavior That Influence Appropriate Student Behavior” as an opportunity for the reader to reflect on how his or her understanding of the principles grows over time.

• In Chapter 2, we have included an expanded section on new uses of technologies including cyberbullying, cybercheating, and sexting that alerts teachers to some of the problems that can be created through student access to these technologies. Obviously technology can bring powerful benefits to the instructional process, but it can also create new sorts of problems.

• In Chapter 3, the concepts of motivation and self-esteem are defined and then used to analyze students’ disruptive behavior. The understanding gained from the analyses enables the professional teacher to target specific components of motivation and self-esteem for intervention to influence students to behave appropriately.

• In Chapter 4, we have changed our terminology from “teacher power bases” to “teacher authority bases.” This change in terminology reminds us that teachers derive their authority and the ability to influence students by using professional

Preface vii

knowledge to determine their classroom behavior. The notion of relationship building also plays a more prominent role in the discussion on referent authority.

• In Chapter 5, we have included a new section on student-teacher relationships and effective teaching and updated the research on effective teaching using concepts from current research on instruction.

• We have reworked Chapter 6 so that it focuses on designing the physical environment and effectively establishing and teaching classroom guidelines. We have expanded our discussions on effectively teaching both procedures and rules to ensure that students have a clear understanding of what appropriate behavior looks like and also that they are capable of behaving in the expected way.

• In Chapter 9, we have added a discussion that relates the concept of cultural stereotyping to the cycle of discouragement for students who exhibit chronic behavior problems or who underachieve.

• In Chapter 11, we have expanded our discussion of working collaboratively with families when outside assistance is needed to work effectively in resolving problems and have added a new section on alternatives to suspensions that reports some of the empirical findings concerning the negative outcomes associated with out-of-school suspensions.

• In addition to adding the three new cases to the iterative case analysis sections, we have updated the references (which are now all located after Appendix C), added new case studies within chapters, and updated/revised/added exercises included throughout the text.

hoW to Use this text: a FocUs oN Pedagogy

This text presents in detail a professional decision-making model. The model requires teachers to use their professional knowledge base to change their behavior (teaching practices) in order to influence students to choose to behave appropriately.

Conceptualizing and implementing teaching as a way of influencing students is an inherently challenging endeavor requiring a high level of expertise. Additionally, it is an approach that is contrary to the unexamined beliefs, past experiences, and current practices of many educators. Therefore, it is incumbent upon educators who wish to practice this approach to develop a deep understanding of the content of this text so that they can employ the approach in classrooms with confidence and, when called upon, can explain the approach to administrators, professional peers, families, and students.

To fully understand this model, it is necessary to have a thorough grasp of the model’s foundational concepts, principles, and classroom applications. The principles, found at the beginning of each chapter, are statements that relate two or more concepts. Without these integrative statements the concepts would stand alone, and their connection to teaching practices would be relatively meaningless. The interpreta- tion of the principles into classroom practices and the decision-making hierarchies are applications of the model.

The first four chapters of the text focus on foundational concepts that the wise teacher must consider in building a set of operational beliefs about influencing student behavior and its connection to teaching. These concepts include teaching, learning, discipline problems, motivation, self-esteem, rewards, punishments, authority bases,

viii Preface

and theories of teacher influence. Chapters 5 through 7 focus on concepts and prin- ciples that teachers can employ to create a learning and instructional environment that will influence students to behave appropriately and strive for academic success. These concepts include effective teaching, teacher expectations, classroom design, guide- lines for behavior, and encouragement. Chapters 8 through 11 focus on concepts and principles that teachers can employ using a hierarchical approach to influence and redirect student behavior from inappropriate to appropriate behavior.

To aid readers in learning the professional decision-making model, the authors deliberately designed the text with pedagogy in mind. The many pedagogical features to aid the learner include the following:

Iterative Case Studies Six iterative case studies are provided at the beginning of the text and repeated at three points later in the text. The case studies enable readers to continually revise their analyses of real classroom events as they proceed through the text, applying their new understandings of how to influ- ence students to behave appropriately. Comparisons of earlier with later analyses should clearly show readers their growth in understanding and applying the concepts and principles. Instructors and students are also encouraged to use additional cases studies of their own that they have experienced or observed.

Pre- and Postreading Activity of Explaining Principles In each chapter, “Principles of Teacher Behavior That Influence Appropriate Student Behavior” are presented at the beginning and end of each chapter. Readers are asked to explain the principles before they read the chapter and then again after reading the chapter. It is a readiness and closure activity that focuses the reader’s attention on how the principles integrate the various concepts and how the principles are applied to the classroom.

Prereading Questions This readiness activity is intended to enable readers to uncover and examine their initial thinking about some of the major concepts that will be covered in each chapter.

Flow Charts Flow charts are presented at the beginning of each chapter. These flow charts illustrate the hierarchy of teacher knowledge and how the present content relates to what was previously learned.

Exercises Exercises are found at the end of each chapter and provide readers with the opportunity to analyze and apply the chapter’s concepts and principles.

Embedded Cases Each chapter presents multiple cases that illustrate the concepts and principles in practice. The cases are drawn from real classroom, school, and community events that the authors have experienced, witnessed, or been told about.

Tables and Figures Throughout the book, tables and figures are used to illustrate the content being read.

Appendices At the end of the book there are three appendices. Appendix A Analysis Inventory of Teacher Behavior that Influences Appropriate Student Behavior is a tool that the classroom teacher can use to reflect upon her behav- ior used to influence appropriate student behavior. Appendix B summarizes

Preface ix

teacher behavior that is congruent with the text for Working with Students With Special Needs. Appendix C Decisions and Tasks for Beginning the School Year lists important tasks and decisions that teachers should consider that will get the school year off to a good start.


A Test Bank that includes multiple choice, true/false, and discussion questions and a PowerPoint® Presentation for each chapter are available online. Instructors can access these supplements by contacting their local representative for a password.



We are especially grateful to the following reviewers who completed very helpful reviews of our work on this edition: Kelechi Ajunwa, Delaware County Community College; Beverly Doyle, Creighton University; Mary Estes, University of North Texas; Marilyn Howe, Clarion University of Pennsylvania; Anita Welch, North Dakota State University; and Eleanor Wilson, University of Virginia. A special thanks goes to Andrew Thompson, during his senior year did an extensive literature search regarding influences on students’ behavior and alternatives to suspension which are used in the text.

Ultimately, the authors’ goal is to present a contemporary approach to classroom management that will improve teaching and learning for today’s teachers and students. Please feel free to let us know if we have been successful.


Iterative Case Study Analyses 1

Iterative Case Study Analyses: First Analysis 2

SeCtIon 1 Foundations Chapter 1 The Basics 4

Chapter 2 Nature of the Discipline Problem 23

Chapter 3 Understanding Why Children Misbehave 44

Chapter 4 Philosophical Approaches to Influencing Students 86

Iterative Case Study Analyses: Second Analysis 112

SeCtIon 2 Prevention Chapter 5 The Professional Teacher 114

Chapter 6 Structuring the Environment 150

Chapter 7 Building Relationships 174

Iterative Case Study Analyses: third Analysis 200

SeCtIon 3 Interventions for Common Behavior Problems Chapter 8 Using Nonverbal Interventions to Influence Students

to Behave Appropriately 202

Chapter 9 Using Verbal Interventions and Logical Consequences to Influence Students to Behave Appropriately 215

SeCtIon 4 Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems Chapter 10 Classroom Interventions for Working with Students

Who Exhibit Chronic Behavior Problems 236

Chapter 11 Seeking Outside Assistance 274

Iterative Case Study Analyses: Fourth Analysis 291 Appendix A Analysis Inventory of Teacher Behavior That Influences

Appropriate Student Behavior 293

Appendix B General Guidelines for Working with Students with Special Needs 299

Appendix C Decisions and Tasks for Beginning the School Year 302

References 304

Index 321 xi

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IteratIve Case study analyses 1

IteratIve Case study analyses: FIrst analysIs 2

Section 1 Foundations

Chapter 1 the BASICS 4 Principles of Teacher Behavior That Influence Appropriate Student Behavior 4

Prereading Activity: Understanding the Principles of Teacher Behavior 4

Prereading Questions for Reflection and Journaling 5

Introduction 5

Defining the Process of Teaching 6 ▶ case 1.1 Getting Students to Respond 9 ▶ case 1.2 “Why Study? We Don’t Get Enough Time for the Test

Anyway!” 10

Principles of Teacher Behavior That Influence Appropriate Student Behavior 11

Professional Decision-Making Hierarchy 18 ▶ case 1.3 The Vice-Principal Wants to See Whom? 19

Summary 21  •  Exercises 22

Chapter 2 nAture oF the DISCIPlIne ProBlem 23 Principles of Teacher Behavior That Influence Appropriate Student Behavior 23

Prereading Activity: Understanding the Principles of Teacher Behavior 23

Prereading Questions for Reflection and Journaling 24

Introduction 24

Defining a Discipline Problem 25

Problem Student Behavior Outside the Definition 29 ▶ case 2.1 Can a Teacher Be a Discipline Problem? 30 ▶ case 2.2 Solving a Motivational Problem 31

Extent of the Problem 32

Public’s Perceptions 32


xiv Contents

Teachers’ Perceptions 32

Students’ Perceptions 32

Magnitude 32

The Effect of Classroom Discipline Problems on Teaching  and Learning 34

Impact on Students 34 ▶ case 2.3 Discipline: A Costly Waste of Time 35 ▶ case 2.4 The Ripple Effect 35

Impact on Teachers 36

New Concerns: Technology 38

Cybercheating 38

Cyberbullying 40 Summary 41  •  Exercises 41

Chapter 3 unDerStAnDIng Why ChIlDren mISBehAve 44 Principles of Teacher Behavior That Influence Appropriate Student Behavior 44

Prereading Activity: Understanding the Principles of Teacher Behavior 45

Prereading Questions for Reflection and Journaling 45

Introduction 45

Societal Changes 46

The Knowledge Explosion and the Erosion of Respect for Authority 47

The Knowledge Explosion, Teacher and Student Feelings of Frustration, and the Relevancy of Schooling 48 ▶ case 3.1 “This Is the Greatest Thing That Has Happened to Me

in 20 Years of Teaching” 48

Television and Violence 49 ▶ case 3.2 Who Really Cares? 50

Television and Alternative Role Models 52

Changes in Ethnicity 53

Understanding Behavior by Analyzing Motivation and Self-Esteem 54 ▶ case 3.3 Being Unprepared 55

Student Mobility 56

Failure to Meet Children’s Basic Needs 56

The Home Environment 56 ▶ case 3.4 Hanging on the Corner 57 ▶ case 3.5 Marital Conflict 59

Contents xv

The School Environment 60 Physiological Needs 60

▶ case 3.6 Forgetting to Sit Down 61 safety aNd security Needs 61

▶ case 3.7 There Must Be a Better Way 62 ▶ case 3.8 Too Much Noise 63 ▶ case 3.9 Afraid of Going to School 63

BeloNgiNg aNd affectioN Needs 64

▶ case 3.10 Turning Off Students 64 ▶ case 3.11 “I’m Going to Be Sorry When Fifth Grade Is Over” 65

Children’s Pursuit of Social Recognition and Self-Esteem 65

Social Recognition 65 ▶ case 3.12 Seeking Faulty Goals 67

Self-Esteem 68 a Parallel Process 69

Bullying 70 ▶ case 3.13 “Get Out of My Face” 71

Cyberbullying 73

Sexting 73

Stages of Cognitive and Moral Development 74

Cognitive Development 74

Moral Development 75

Behavior: The Interaction of Cognitive and Moral Development 76

NeuroscieNce research 79

Instructional Competence 79 ▶ case 3.14 Not Being Able to Teach 80

Resiliency 81 Summary 83  •  Exercises 84

Chapter 4 PhIloSoPhICAl APProACheS to InFluenCIng StuDentS 86 Principles of Teacher Behavior That Influence Appropriate Student Behavior 86

Prereading Activity: Understanding the Principles of Teacher Behavior 87

Prereading Questions for Reflection and Journaling 87

Introduction 87 ▶ case 4.1 The Tricks-of-the-Trade Approach 88

xvi Contents

Teacher Authority Bases 90

Referent Authority 90 ▶ case 4.2 The Involved Teacher 91 ▶ case 4.3 Demand without the Warmth 92

Expert Authority 93 ▶ case 4.4 Her Reputation Precedes Her 93

Legitimate Authority 94 ▶ case 4.5 “School Is Your Job” 94

Reward/Coercive Authority 95 ▶ case 4.6 Going to Recess 95

Theories of Teacher Influence 98

Student-Directed Theories 98 ▶ case 4.7 Handling Disruptive David 99

Collaborative Theories 104

Teacher-Directed Theories 106 Summary 108  •  Influence Theories on  the Web 109  •  Exercises 109

IteratIve Case study analyses: seCond analysIs 112

Section 2 Prevention

Chapter 5 the ProFeSSIonAl teACher 114 Principles of Teacher Behavior That Influence Appropriate Student Behavior 114

Prereading Activity: Understanding the Principles of Teacher Behavior 115

Prereading Questions for Reflection and Journaling 115

Introduction 115

Positive Student-Teacher Relationships and Effective Teaching 116 ▶ case 5.1 Relating to Jennifer 119

The Basics of Effective Teaching 119

Lesson Design 120

Student Motivation: Teacher Variables 123 ▶ case 5.2 The Popcorn Popper 124 ▶ case 5.3 Talking Between Classes 125 ▶ case 5.4 Nonconstructive Feedback 127

Teacher Expectations 128

Classroom Questioning 131

Contents xvii

Maximizing Learning Time 133 allocated time 133 time-oN-task (eNgaged time) 133

Beyond the Basics 134

Teaching for Understanding 136

Creating Communities of Learners 137

Teaching Toward Multiple Intelligences 138 ▶ case 5.5 Cooperative Learning in Biology 139

Differentiating Instruction 141 ▶ case 5.6 Differentiation Through Technology 143

Student Motivation: Student Cognition 144 ▶ case 5.7 Three Years of History Rolled into One 146

Summary 147  •  Exercises 148

Chapter 6 StruCturIng the envIronment 150 Principles of Teacher Behavior That Influence Appropriate Student Behavior 151

Prereading Activity: Understanding the Principles of Teacher Behavior 151

Prereading Questions for Reflection and Journaling 151

Introduction 152

Designing the Physical Classroom Environment 152

Environmental Conditions 152

Use of Space 153 seatiNg arraNgemeNts 153 BulletiN Boards aNd disPlay areas 154

▶ case 6.1 Fourteen to Ten, Music Wins 154 ▶ case 6.2 Having Your Name Placed on the Board Isn’t Always Bad 155

Establishing Classroom Guidelines 155

Classroom Procedures 155 ▶ case 6.3 Hitting the Bull’s-eye 157

Classroom Rules 157 ▶ case 6.4 Leave Me Alone 158

the Need for rules 158

determiNiNg Necessary rules 158

develoPiNg coNsequeNces 159

commuNicatiNg rules 164

oBtaiNiNg commitmeNts 165

▶ case 6.5 “I Don’t Know If I Can Remember” 165 ▶





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