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examine how social responsibility influences decision-making and cost optimization. 1) Prepare Power Points Presentation on any topic of your Course Cost Accounting demonstration that how this is helping in achieving the social responsibility.

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Home » Uncategorized » examine how social responsibility influences decision-making and cost optimization. 1) Prepare Power Points Presentation on any topic of your Course Cost Accounting demonstration that how this is helping in achieving the social responsibility.

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examine how social responsibility influences decision-making and cost optimization.

1) Prepare Power Points Presentation on any topic of your Course Cost Accounting demonstration that how this is helping in achieving the social responsibility.

 

Cost Management
Measuring, Monitoring, and Motivating Performance
Chapter 10
Static and Flexible Budgets
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 1
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Learning objectives

Q1: How do budgets contribute to the strategic management
process?

Q2: What is a master budget and how is it prepared?

Q3: What are flexible budgets and how can they be used for
sensitivity analysis?

Q4: How are budget variances calculated and used as
performance measures?

Q5: How do behavioral tensions influence the budgeting process?

Q6: What approaches exist for addressing the problems of
traditional budgeting?
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 2
Q1: Budgets & Strategic Management Process
• A budget is
• A formalized financial plan.
• A translation of an organization’s strategies.
• A method of communicating.
• A way to define areas of responsibility and
decision rights.
• The budget cycle is the series of
sequential steps followed to create and
use budgets.
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 3
Q1: Budgets & Strategic Management Process
• Budgeting process begins with the organizational
vision, core competencies, and risk appetite
• Organizational strategies designed to achieve the
vision will drive the capital expenditures and long
term financing plans
• Operating plans are then created in line with the
organizational strategies
• Actual results must be monitored, measured, and
analyzed compared to budgeted plans
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 4
Q1: Budgets & Levers of Control
Belief Systems
• Communicates
organizational
strategies and
goals
• Motivates
managers to
plan in
advance and
coordinate
activities
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Boundary
Systems
Interactive
Control Systems
Diagnostic
Control Systems
• Authorizes
employees to
engage in
planned
activities and
spend within
budget limits
• Ensures
sufficient cash
flow for
financial
viability
• Utilize
variances to
identify
opportunities
and threats to
the business
• Revaluate
strategies and
operating plans
as conditions
changes
• Assign
responsibility
and reward
employees for
achieving
budget targets
• Motivate
managers to
provide good
estimates and
use resources
appropriately
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 5
Q2: Master Budgets
• A master budget is
• A comprehensive plan for the upcoming
accounting period.
• Usually prepared for a one-year period.
• Is based on a series of budget assumptions.
• The master budget consists of several
subsidiary budgets, in two categories:
• Operating budgets.
• Financial budgets.
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 6
Q2: Operating Budgets
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 7
Q2: Operating Budgets
The operating budget is created by preparing
the following individual budgets, in this order:
• Revenue budget
• Production budget
• Direct materials budget
• Direct labor budget
• Manufacturing overhead budget
• Inventory and cost of goods sold budget
• Support department budgets
• Budgeted income statement
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 8
Q2: Financial Budgets
The financial budget is created by preparing
the following individual budgets, in this order:
• Capital budget
• Long-term financing budget
• Cash budget
• Budgeted balance sheet
• Budgeted statement of cash flows
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 9
Q2: Operating Budget Example
Stanley J, Inc., makes a tool used by auto mechanics that sells for
$68/unit. It expects to sell 6,000 units in April and 7,000 units in May.
Stanley J prefers to end each period with a finished goods inventory
equal to 10% of the next period’s sales in units and a direct materials
inventory equal to 20% of the direct materials required for the next
period’s production. The company never has any beginning or ending
work-in-process inventories. There were 400 units in finished goods
inventory on April 1. Prepare the revenue and production budgets for
April.
Production budget
Revenue budget
Budgeted sales in units in April
6,000 Budgeted sales in units in April
Budgeted selling price per unit
$68.00 Desired ending FG inventory
Budgeted revenues
$408,000 Total units required
Less: beginning FG inventory
Required production in units
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
6,000
700
6,700
(400)
6,300
Slide # 10
Q2: Operating Budget Example
Stanley J’s product uses 0.3 pounds of direct material per unit, at a cost
of $4/lb. There were 220 lbs. of direct material on hand on April 1.
Assume that budgeted production for May is 6,500 units. Prepare the
direct materials purchases and usage budget for April.
Direct materials budget
Required production in units
DM required per unit, in pounds
Total DM required, in pounds
Less: Beginning DM inventory
Plus: Desired ending DM inventory
Required DM purchases in pounds
Budgeted DM cost per pound
Budgeted cost of DM
6,300
0.3
1,890
(220)
390
2,060
$4.00
$8,240
Usage Budget = 1,890 pounds * $4 per pound = $7,560
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 11
Q2: Operating Budget Example
Stanley J’s product uses 0.2 hours of direct labor at a cost of $12/hr.
Prepare the direct labor budget for April.
Direct labor budget
Required production in units
DL required per unit, in hours
Total DL hours required
Budgeted cost per DL hour
Budgeted cost of DL
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
6,300
0.2
1,260
$12.00
$15,120
Slide # 12
Q2: Operating Budget Example
Stanley J’s budgeted fixed manufacturing overhead for April is $167,000,
and variable manufacturing overhead is budgeted at $6 per direct labor
hour. Prepare the manufacturing overhead budget for April.
Manufacturing overhead budget
Total DL hours required
Budgeted variable overhead per DL hour
Total budgeted variable overhead
Budgeted fixed overhead
Total budgeted overhead
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
1,260
$6.00
$7,560
$167,000
$174,560
Slide # 13
Q2: Operating Budget Example
Assume that Stanley J’s April 1 direct materials inventory had a cost of
$1,560. Prepare the April ending inventories budget for direct materials.
Ending inventories budgets
Budgeted cost of DM purchases
$8,240
Beginning DM inventory
$854
DM available for use
$9,094
Budgeted cost of desired ending DM inventory:
[6,500 units x 0.3 lbs/unit] x 20% x $4/lb
$1,560
Budgeted cost of DM to be used
$7,534
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 14
Q2: Operating Budget Example
Prepare the April ending inventories budget for finished goods.
Budgeted cost of DM to be used
Budgeted cost of DL
Total budgeted overhead
Total budgeted manufacturing costs
Required production in units
Budgeted manufacturing cost per unit
Budgeted ending FG inventory in units
Budgeted cost of ending FG inventory
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
$7,534
$15,120
$174,560
$197,214
6,300
$31.3037
700
$21,913
Slide # 15
Q2: Operating Budget Example
Assume that Stanley J’s April 1 finished goods inventory had a cost of
$12,146. Prepare the cost of goods sold budget for April.
Cost of goods sold budget
Beginning FG inventory
Total budgeted manufacturing costs
Cost of goods available for sale
Less: budgeted ending FG inventory
Budgeted cost of goods sold
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
$12,146
$197,214
$209,359
$21,913
$187,447
Slide # 16
Q2: Operating Budget Example
Stanley J’s budget for April includes $22,000 for administrative costs,
$34,000 for fixed distribution costs, $18,000 for research and
development, and $13,000 for fixed marketing costs. Additionally, the
budgeted variable costs for distribution are $0.75/unit sold and the
budgeted variable costs for marketing are 4% of sales revenue. Prepare
the support department budget for April.
Support department budget
Administration
$22,000
Distribution: Fixed costs
$34,000
Variable costs
$4,500 $38,500
Research & development
$18,000
Marketing: Fixed costs
$13,000
Variable costs
$16,320 $29,320
Total budgeted support department costs
$107,820
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 17
Q2: Operating Budget Example
Suppose that Stanley J’s income tax rate is 28%. Prepare the budgeted
income statement for April.
Budgeted income statement
Sales revenue
Cost of goods sold
Gross margin
Operating costs:
Administration
Distribution
Research & development
Marketing
Net income before taxes
Income taxes
Net income
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
$408,000
$187,447
$220,553
$22,000
$38,500
$18,000
$29,320 $107,820
$112,733
$31,565
$81,168
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 18
Q4: Budget Variances
• Managers compare actual results to
budgeted results in order to
• Monitor operations, and
• Motivate appropriate performance.
• Differences between budgeted and
actual results are called budget
variances.
• Variances are stated in absolute value
terms, and labeled as Favorable or
Unfavorable.
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 19
Q4: Budget Variances
• Reasons for budget variances are
investigated.
• The investigation may find:
• Inefficiencies in actual operations that can
be corrected.
• Efficiencies in actual operations that can be
replicated in other areas of the
organization.
• Uncontrollable outside factors that require
changes to the budgeting process.
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 20
Q3: Static Budgets
• A budget prepared for a single level of
sales volume is called a static budget.
• Static budgets are prepared at the
beginning of the year.
• Differences between actual results and
the static budget are called static budget
variances.
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 21
Q3: Flexible Budgets
• A budget prepared for a multiple levels of sales
volume is called a flexible budget.
• Flexible budgets are prepared at the beginning
of the year for planning purposes and at the end
of the year for performance evaluation.
• Flexible budgets are also used for sensitivity
analysis and to manage risk due to uncertainty.
• Differences between actual results and the
flexible budget are called flexible budget
variances.
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 22
Q3, Q4: Flexible Budget Example
Tina’s Trinkets is preparing a budget for 2006. The budgeted selling price
per unit is $10, and total fixed costs for 2006 are estimated to be $5,000.
Variable costs are budgeted at $3/unit. Prepare a flexible budget for the
volume levels 1,000, 1,100, and 1,200 units.
Sales in units
Revenues
Variable costs
Contribution margin
Fixed costs
Operating income
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Volume Levels
1,000
1,100
1,200
$10,000 $11,000 $12,000
$3,000 $3,300 $3,600
$7,000 $7,700 $8,400
$5,000 $5,000 $5,000
$2,000 $2,700 $3,400
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 23
Q3, Q4: Static Budget Variances Example
Suppose that Tina’s 2006 static budget was for 1,100 units of sales. The
actual results are given below. Compute the static budget variances for
each row and discuss.
Static
Budget
Sales in units
1,100
Revenues
$11,000
$3,300
Variable costs
Contribution margin $7,700
Fixed costs
$5,000
$2,700
Operating income
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Static
Actual Budget
Results Variance
980
$9,604 $1,396 Unfavorable
$311 Favorable
$2,989
$6,615 $1,085 Unfavorable
$4,520
$480 Favorable
$605 Unfavorable
$2,095
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 24
Q3, Q4: Flexible Budget Variances Example
Compute the flexible budget variances for Tina and discuss the results.
Compare the flexible budget variances to the static budget variances on the
prior page.
Year-end
Flexible
Flexible Actual Budget
Budget Results Variance
Sales in units
980
980
Revenues
$9,800 $9,604
$196 Unfavorable
Variable costs
$2,940 $2,989
$49 Unfavorable
Contribution margin $6,860 $6,615
$245 Unfavorable
Fixed costs
$5,000 $4,520
$480 Favorable
Operating income
$1,860 $2,095
$235 Unfavorable
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 25
Q3, Q4: Performance Evaluation
• A static budget variance includes effects from
output volume.
• A flexible budget variance removes these
output volume effects.
• Other adjustments to the year-end flexible
budget may be made for a fair performance
evaluation, such as
• Input price changes outside the control of the
manager under evaluation
• Fixed cost increases outside the control of the
manager under evaluation
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 26
Q5: Behavior Tensions in Budgeting
• Budgets used to evaluate performance and
compensation can create behavioral tension
• Participative budgeting – when managers who are
responsible for the budgets prepare the budget
forecasts
– Can result in budgetary slack – when managers set
targets so low that goals can be met easily (and bonuses
achieved)
• Budget ratcheting – when top managers set targets
– If targets unachievable, this can result in employees
having little motivation to meet targets
• Organizations must watch for budget manipulation
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 27
Q6: Other Budgeting Approaches
• Zero based budgets are prepared without using
past information as justification.
• Rolling budgets are prepared frequently for
overlapping time periods and actual results may be
used to update the budget for the next period.
• Kaizen budgets plan cost reductions over time.
• Activity based budgets use more cost pools and
cost drivers.
• GPK and RCA budgets identify fixed and variable
cost functions at the resource center level.
• Beyond budgeting uses external benchmarks to
evaluate managers’ performance
© John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Chapter 10: Static and Flexible Budgets
Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e
Slide # 28

 

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