The homework assignment is attached below under ‘What to do’. The reading is also down below under ‘chapter 3’. Explain the concept rather than reading the same explanation in the book.
The Importance of Perception 3.1 Explain why understanding perception is important.
How individuals respond to people, objects, and environments depends largely on the perceptions they
have about them. Although we tend think what we see, hear, and taste is “real,” perceptions actually
shape our understanding of the world. Thus, what we perceive as true or accurate may not reflect
another person’s reality. If you live with someone or are someone on the autism spectrum, you likely
understand that you and others don’t necessarily share similar perceptions. For example, some people
on the spectrum struggle with filtering specific sensory stimuli, so sounds or lighting that are common in
public settings are uncomfortable, even confusing, for them (Morton-Cooper, 2004). If what you perceive
is different from others’ perceptions, you may be tempted to assume that you are correct and that
others are wrong. However, thinking this way not only is unfair, it negatively affects your ability to
interact effectively with others. Communication and perception are intertwined. When we
communicate, we don’t just respond to others’ words; we respond to our perceptions of the way others
look, sound, and smell and sometimes how they behave. For example, when we perceive people as
being polite, we are more likely to agree to their requests (Kellerman, 2004). Recognize, however, that
others may view what you see as “polite behavior” as overly formal or perhaps rude. We noted in
Chapter 2 that identities play an important role in communication. They also influence and are
influenced by perception. Thus, just as our perceptions of others influence how we communicate with
them, our perceptions and communication affect how they see themselves. Let’s take our previous
scenario as a case in point. How might Mateo’s or Charee’s perceptions affect Professor Wolfe’s
perception of herself? If most people perceive Professor Wolfe as Charee does – as amusing and open –
and therefore respond to her by laughing and spending time with her, then she probably sees herself
positively. On the other hand, if most people respond as Mateo did and consequently chose to have little
contact with her, Professor Wolfe may perceive herself more negatively. As you might expect, then,
perception and identity are also interwoven. On the one hand, Mateo’s perceptions of Professor Wolfe
affect her identity. At the same time, how the professor views herself and others influences how she
perceives and responds to the world around her. If she has a positive self-image, Professor Wolfe may
perceive that others like her and become more outgoing, she might be more optimistic and see the
positive aspects of a situation more readily, and she could be less aware of others’ negative reactions to
her. As you read this chapter, you are receiving considerable sensory input. An air conditioner or heater
might be running, people may be moving past you, and the temperature where you sit likely fluctuates
over time. In addition, you may feel hungry or tired, you might detect the scent of cleaning products,
and the chair you are sitting on could be uncomfortable. How are you able to manage all the information
your senses bring to you so that you can focus on your reading? How are you able to make sense of all
this sensory input? The answer is that you continuously engage in a variety of processes that limit and
structure everything you perceive (Kanizsa, 1979; Morgan, 1977). Let’s look at how this works.
What Is Perception? 3.2 Describe the three procedures people use to understand information collected
through the senses.
Perception refers to the process we use to understand our environment so we can respond to it
appropriately. For example, if you see a small animal, before you reach down to pet it, you will seek to
determine what type of animal it is and whether it is friendly. Perception is composed of three
procedures: selection, organization, and interpretation. Together, these procedures help us understand
the information we collect through our senses – what we see, hear, taste, smell, and touch. The sensory
data we select, the ways we organize them, and the interpretations we assign to them affect the ways
we communicate (Manusov & Spitzberg, 2008). Although these processes tend to happen concurrently
and unconsciously, researchers separate them to better explain how they function.
3.3 Name three individual factors that affect one’s perceptual processes.
Thus far, we have explained how perceptions form: Individuals engage in selective attention, use a
variety of organizational procedures, and assign meaning to their perceptions. Therefore, if you hear a
loud noise in the street, you will turn your attention to the street; and if you see a car stopped and a
person lying in the road with their motorcycle, you will categorize the event as an accident. Finally, you
likely will decide (interpret) that the car hit the motorcycle rider. You may even “decide” who is at fault
for the accident. As we’ve discussed, a variety of individual factors influence people’s perceptual
processes and affect their selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input. For example,
those who often ride motorcycles may attribute fault for the accident to the car driver (because they
have frequently experienced inattentive auto drivers), whereas people who only drive cars may attribute
blame to the motorcyclist (because they observed cyclists driving between lanes of cars on the road).
The individual factors that influence our perceptual processes generally fall into three categories:
physical, cognitive, and personality characteristics.
The Individual, Perception, and Society 3.4 Articulate how power, culture, social comparisons, and
historical period influence perception. How do societal factors affect perception?
As we explain in this section, the position individuals hold in society and the cultures in which they live
affect what they perceive and how they interpret these perceptions. As you read this section, we
encourage you to consider the societal forces that affect your perceptions as well as how they might
affect the perceptions of others.
Ethics and Perception 3.5 Explain why ethics is relevant to the perception process.
As we’ve discussed throughout this chapter, the ways people communicate to and about others are
connected to their perceptions and cognitions about them. That is, what we select to attend to, what
categories we put people in, and the attributions we make about them all strongly influence what we
believe, say, and do. For example, Dev was driving home late one night and stopped at a traffic light
when he noticed a young White woman in the car next to his. She reached over and locked her door. As
she looked up, Dev smiled slightly and then leaned over and locked his door. In this case, Dev was gently
reminding the other driver that she was responding based on stereotypical perceptions and cognitions.
Improving Your Perception Skills 3.6 Identify three ways you can improve your perception skills.
You probably realize now that perceptions are subject to variance and error because of the variety of
steps one goes through in forming them (selection, organization, and interpretation) and the range of
factors that influence the perception process (individual characteristics, cognitive complexity, power,
culture, historical time period, and social roles). However, certain cognitive and communication
behaviors can improve one’s ability to perceive and understand the world. First, one can engage in
mindfulness to improve perception and understanding. Mindfulness refers to a clear focus on one’s
current activity, with attention to as many specifics of the event as possible (Langer, 1978). People tend
to be most mindful when they are engaged in a new or unusual activity. Once an activity becomes
habitual, we are likely to overlook its details. Mindfulness requires that one bring the same level of
attention and involvement to routine activities as one does to novel ones. You sent In addition, before
assuming your perceptions are accurate, you might ask yourself a few questions to help you check those
perceptions: • Have you focused too narrowly and missed relevant information because of selective
attention? For example, did you focus on what the person was wearing rather than on what they were
saying? • What type of organizational pattern did you use? For example, just because two people are
standing next to one another does not mean they are together. • To what extent have you considered all
possible interpretations for the information you perceived, using the full range of your cognitive
complexity? For example, if you did poorly on a test, was it due to poor test construction, your lack of
sleep, the teacher’s failure to prepare you, or your own failure to study sufficiently? • How might your
physical condition have influenced your perceptions? For example, are you tired, hungry, or frightened?
•How has your cultural background influenced your perceptions? For example, are you perceiving
politeness as deception? •How has your social role influenced your perception? For example, have you
begun to perceive all elderly people as infirm because you work in a nursing home? •How has your social
position influenced your perception? For example, have you considered how others with different
positions might perceive the same issue? You sent Another way to improve one’s perception and
understanding is to clearly separate facts from inferences. Facts are truths that are verifiable based on
observation. Inferences are conclusions that we draw or interpretations we make based on the facts.
Thus, it may be a fact that Southerners speak more slowly than do people from other regions of the
United States, but it is an inference if you conclude that their slow speech indicates slow thought
Description of the assignment based on syllabus:
Students will create 5 journal entries regarding the interpersonal and intra-personal concepts covered over the semester. The journal responses are designed for students to explore their own experiences regarding course concepts.
• Department Goal: Analysis of Communication • Learning Outcome: Critical Thinking (AACU) and Critically Analyze Messages
Your journal response is going to have three parts.
In the first part of your paper, you are going to identify(select) AND define (in your own words) minimum of 3 and no more than 5 concepts/aspects/perspectives/theories that you have learned from chapter 3 (Communicating, Perceiving, and Understanding) of our book, and you deem these newly learned concepts/theories to be intriguing and/or useful in your future professional and personal lives.
In the second part of your paper, you`re going to explain why you believe these newly learned concepts are useful in your personal and professional lives. In other words, what makes these concepts/theories important in your life.
In the third part of your paper, you are going to explain how learning these concepts will impact your personal and professional lives from this point onward. In other words, what aspects of your interpersonal and intrapersonal communication do you think (and want to) improve based on the newly learned concepts that you discussed in the first part of the paper.
This assignment has 10 Points.
The criteria that I will use to evaluate your paper is as follows:
– At least three and no more than five concepts/theories are selected, defined, explained and used in the paper. ( —–/ 2 pts)
– The length of the paper is 600 words long. (——-/ 2 pts)
– Paper does not have grave grammatical errors, and is free of typos (——–/1 pt)
– Paper CLEARLY AND CONCISELY explains why you believe these newly learned concepts are useful in your personal and professional lives. In other words, what makes these concepts/theories important in your life. (———/ 2 pts)
– Paper CLEARLY AND CONCISELY explains how learning these concepts will impact your personal and professional lives from this point onward. In other words, what aspects of your interpersonal and intrapersonal communication do you think (and want
to) improve based on the newly learned concepts that you discussed in the first part of the paper. (———/ 3 pts)
Total: 10 pts
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