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My task is only to give a positive opinion of these 2 discussions from my classmates about this Title.. In total, I need 2 replies ( each of 200 words ) The 2 discussions are these:   Discussion # 1 :  According to Peplau’s n


Home » Uncategorized » My task is only to give a positive opinion of these 2 discussions from my classmates about this Title.. In total, I need 2 replies ( each of 200 words ) The 2 discussions are these:   Discussion # 1 :  According to Peplau’s n

 My task is only to give a positive opinion of these 2 discussions from my classmates about this Title.. In total, I need 2 replies ( each of 200 words ) The 2 discussions are these:  

Discussion # 1 :

 According to Peplau’s nursing theory, nurses have a variety of roles, and the surrogate is among the six primary roles suggested. Other roles include stranger, teacher, resource person, counsellor, and leader. In nursing practice, nurses always meet strangers who become their clients and work together to identify the health issue and incorporate required health needs (Suhariyanto et al., 2018). In the interpersonal relationships theory, Peplau recognizes four main phases which are orientation, identification, exploitation and resolution. In orientation, where nurses meet patients, a health issue is identified, appropriate assistance is initiated for the patient to feel belonging, problem-solving interventions start, and through patient-nurse collaboration, a resolution is found (Forchuk, 2021). In these phases, it is where nurse’s role is generated including that of a surrogate.  

As per Hildegard Peplau, a nurse helps a patient elucidate the spheres of dependence, interdependence, and independence and acts as the patient’s advocate (Forchuk, 2021). The role extends to the nurse substituting for another person well-recognized to the patient, such as a guardian, sibling, relative, or instructor. This nurse role has not been mentioned in the recent nursing literature because a patient may unknowingly transfer conducts or emotions that are linked with significant other onto the nurse. The nurse plays an integral role in handling this feeling and helping patients to identify the differences and similarities between themselves and their peers. Peplau also reports that a nurse provides guidance, direction, and support to promote patients’ active involvement in upholding their health (Suhariyanto et al., 2018). In the surrogate role, nurses must encourage patients to explore current situations and create a friendly environment allowing patients to express their concerns. Peplau’s theory has acknowledged the importance of patient experiences in nursing care as dependence, interdependence, and independence. 

However, the surrogate nurse role is less mentioned in nursing practice since other roles defined by Peplau have significant weight in recent experiences. The theory of interpersonal relationships has concentrated on the patient-nurse relationship in producing better outcomes. Ultimately, the surrogate role should be addressed among the six nurses’ roles as proposed by Peplau’s role of nursing practice (Suhariyanto et al., 2018). When patients cooperate with others, the quality of dependence is born, and it becomes easy to get all health needs. Communicating with nurses effectively and responding to questions, a health issue is identified, better interventions are taken, and resolutions are attained (Suhariyanto et al., 2018). This is where the element of independence is born in the surrogate nurse role.  

Cooperating with others is a significant virtue for a nurse in attaining high-quality care and better patient outcomes. When a patient cooperates with a nurse, similar results are attained. The patient experience is highly improved, and better patient outcomes are attained when patient-nurse solid cooperation is an essential virtue of interdependence found in surrogate nurses (Forchuk, 2021). Therefore, the surrogate nurse role, as proposed by Peplau’s theory, should be emphasized in nursing practice literature because of its vital role in developing dependence, independence, and interdependence. 


Forchuk, C. (2021). Overview of Peplau’s theory. From Therapeutic Relationships to Transitional Care, pp. 3–15. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003000853-21 

Suhariyanto, Hariyati, R. T., & Ungsianik, T. (2018). Improving the interpersonal competencies of head nurses through Peplau’s theoretical active learning approach. Enfermería Clínica, 28, 149-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1130-8621(18)30056-1 

Discussion # 2 : 

 Peplau’s nursing theory, “the interpersonal relationship,” focuses on the patient and the nurse’s connection or the need for cooperation between nurses and patients. The partnership or connection between the two involves both working as a team, being knowledgeable and mature with the procedure. The theory involves an interpersonal procedure because it needs interaction between two or more individuals with a common goal. Nursing comprises different roles, and among them is the surrogate role. According to Peplau’s definition of the surrogate role, a nurse assists the patient in differentiating and elucidating the areas of dependency, mutuality, and liberation and supports another individual well-known to the patient (Wasaya et al., 2021). In line with this definition of the surrogate role by Peplau, it is relevant to nursing practice as currently encountered.

Since the role involves the connection between and partnership of the nurse and patient, it is relevant to the nursing practice as currently experienced. In nursing practice, the nurse advocates for the patient and ensures that they provide the required care and support for the patient for effective results. Also, the surrogate role brings about a relationship between the nurse and surrogate where care is provided for both the infant and the proposed parents through their journey with understanding, encouragement, sympathy, and privacy.

Also, surrogacy is considered one of the most significant contemporary medical exercises globally; thus, it is crucial to acknowledge how it impacts nursing practice (Frati et al., 2021). The most common dilemmas linked with surrogacy and nursing are moral; hence, nurses must conduct thorough medical checkups on sick individuals to solve the ethical issue that could arise in association with surrogacy. Also, the proposed parents and the surrogate mother need to clarify choices to be put up centered on medical emergencies in the contract. The agreement between the involved individuals in the procedure helps nurses create health decisions, such as helping the client agree to take increased accountability for the care plan.

Conclusively, based on Peplau’s definition of the surrogate role, its relevant to nursing practice as currently encountered. Also, the role is observed to establish a relationship between the surrogate and the nurse and a partnership between the involved individuals in the process. Also, Peplau’s nursing theory assists in solving health issues that could arise during the surrogacy process, where the nurse and patient work together on meeting the sick individual’s needs.


Frati, P., La Russa, R., Santurro, A., Fineschi, B., Di Paolo, M., Scopetti, M., … & Fineschi, V. (2021). Bioethical issues and legal frameworks of surrogacy: A global perspective about the right to health and dignity. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 258, 1-8.

Wasaya, F., Shah, Q., Shaheen, A., & Carroll, K. (2021). Peplau’s theory of interpersonal relations: A case study. Nursing Science Quarterly, 34(4), 368-371.

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