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Reading Guide Module 6 Framing Theory To assist you with the assigned readings, I have developed an outline of questions for you to answer. Think about this as a key for

 

Reading Guide Module 6

Framing Theory

To assist you with the assigned readings, I have developed an outline of questions for you to answer. Think about this as a key for what information to pay attention to in the reading. Research shows that students learn and retain information better when they can write it down in their own words.

Try to answer the questions within these guides in your own words rather than copying and pasting the content from readings/lectures. The idea is to see if you can succinctly answer the question in your own words based on the knowledge you gained from your readings/lectures. Try to answer each question within one to three sentences.

1.    How does framing theory conceptual media? Media effect? And media influence?
2.    Describe the two key concepts of framing theory.
3.    What is the central proposition of framing theory?
4.    What is the difference between episodic and thematic frames? How do these different frames affect our attributions of who to blame?
5.    Describe the four ways people access frames in their minds?
6.    Describe one of the criticisms of framing theory
7.    Describe one of the ways in which framing theory has been altered over time
8.    What are race coded issues and how they affect our attitudes? (asynchronous lecture)
9.    What were the results of the Johnson et al study discussed in the asynchronous lecture with respect to empathy and policy support to help White and Black victims of Hurricane Katrina?  (asynchronous lecture)
10.    How do sensational stories affect our perceptions? (asynchronous lecture)

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COMM 102 S2021

5/5/2021

(c) M. Saleem

2

Episodic and thematic frames

EPISODIC’ FRAMES

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Framing

Poverty

{Iyengar, 1990)

news

· Randomly assigned

to thematic or

episodic TV

stories

· 3 Thematic

►Increased unemployment in manufacturing sector

►Increases in number of people meeting poverty line

· Food emergencies across the nation

· Episodic

Unemp

oy

COMM 102 S2021

5/5/2021

(c) M. Saleem

5

l

ed person discussed their economic

difficulty

· Manipulated race (Black/White) of person

Framing

Poverty

(Iyengar, 1990)

· Post-exposure perceptions

· Cause: “In your opinion. what are the most important causes of poverty?”

· Individual vs social factors

· Solutio to

ways

n: “If you were asked to prescribe

reduce poverty, what would you suggest?”

Results

(Iyengar, 1990)

· Individual vs social attribution

· Thematic condition = social attributions

· Episodic condition = individual attributions

COMM 102 S2021

5/5/2021

(c) M. Saleem

6

· Does race

further make matters

individuals judged

Black

impoverished

worse?

for being

Associating race with topics

· Race-coded issues

· Certain political issuesare seemingly neutral (they affect everyone) but they are heavily associated wrfh certain racial groups (Gilens 1996).

· Immigration

· Cri’ne

· Poverty

· Terrorism

· Affirmative Action

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COMM 102 S2021

5/5/2021

(c) M. Saleem

7

News Stories

& Empathy

Experiment – Johnson et al, 2009

· How story of Katrina

victims

news

influence empathy and policy support

· Race of victims

· Type of activity

· looting

· Non-looting

· Control

· Empathy

· Policy Support

News Stori Experiment

es

& Empathy

– Johnson et al,

· Empathy:

victims?

vhat e

2009

· To

· Pol

icy support:

extent)

al extent 4 =a moderate extent 7 = a great

m

passage?

for supporting

extent is the government responsible

To what

xtent do you feel empathy for the

the

Katrina victims that youjvst readabout in the s

much monthly financial support should the

se some Katrina

$600)

How

victimsreceive from the government? (l= $0 7 =

(1 =a very

.

.

Effects

of media distortions

[Gibson & Zillmann. 1994)

· Carjacking story manipulation (4×2)

· Exemplars vary degree of extremity

· No injury, minimal, substantial, death

· Response

· Immediately or 1 week later

COMM 102 S2021

5/5/2021

(c) M. Saleem

10

No harm: “Adams was lucky. The incident terrified her. But she walked away without so much asa scratch.”

Minimal harm: “Adams was lucky. The incident terrified her, but she walked away with only minor cuts and bruises from falling onto the pavement.”

Substantial harm: “Adams was fortunate, considering what could have happened. She was terrified, and she suffered a broken arm from being shoved out of the moving car and hitting the sharp

edge of the gaspump.”

Death: “Unfortunately Adams did not make it completely out of the car. Her arm got caught in the seat belt as Block drove away, and shewas

dragged, screaming for help, for several feet –

Effects

of media distortions

[Gibson & Zillmann. 1994)

· Outcome

opinion, how serious a

· In

your

problem is ca acking?

think carjacking will become

Do you

threat on campus?
l

a real

nationa

How

likely do you t

become

hink it is that you might

a victim of carjacking?

(Gibson 1994)

Effects of

& Zillmann,

media distortion

of severity

· I

plar

eased perception

exem

ncr

death

of problem for

over

· Incr

time (1 week later.

)

REASED

exemplars and this effect INC

death

tantial and

tality estimates for subs

eased fa

· time!

tic over

likely to rely on vividness heuris

More

Effects

of media distortion

(Gibson & Zillmann, 1994)

· Death exemplar condition rated as more upsetting than others

· Death exemplar and no harm exemplar rated asequally informative

·

in perceptions of

No differences

newsworthiness, importance, or accuracy

Need for representative exemplars

(Gibson & Zillmann, 1994)

ists have long been instructed to

urnal

“Jo

ramatic case histories to

make

a story

more interesting,

but it is apparent

that

thi

s

practice

gather d

serves to create

on the part of the news recipient”

COMM 102 S2021

5/5/2021

(c) M. Saleem

12

News tends

to be displayed in

Problems,

issues, grievances,

· Two

opposing sides

(p. 623)

·

frame

ts

conflic

a conflict

Framing Theory

· Framesin communication

· Framesin thoughts

·

frames

How

thought

in communication affect frames in

· Saltence availability accessibility applicability

· Episodic & thematic framing

· Race-coded issues

· Creating associations in your mind

· Sensational frames

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The post Reading Guide Module 6 Framing Theory To assist you with the assigned readings, I have developed an outline of questions for you to answer. Think about this as a key for first appeared on Writeden.

Reading Guide Module 6 Framing Theory To assist you with the assigned readings, I have developed an outline of questions for you to answer. Think about this as a key for
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