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Reflect on your scores and describe your style for dealing with conflict. Are your scores what you would expect? Do you feel your style of dealing with conflict will help or hin

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No plagiarism, and you need to use the reference that I included.

 SEE ATTACHED

    • Reflect on your scores and describe your style for dealing with conflict.
    • Are your scores what you would expect?
    • Do you feel your style of dealing with conflict will help or hinder you as a principal? How so?
    • What can a leader do to improve his/her ability to resolve organizational conflict and improve communication skills?

see attached

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    Module4Assignment.docx
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    effectivecommunications.pdf
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    considerationonconflictmanagement.pdf
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    chapter114.pdf
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    chapter11.pdf
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    chapter112.pdf
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    chapter113.pdf

Module 4 Assignment

 

icon  Communication & Conflict

To complete this assignment, follow the steps below.

1. After reading Chapter 11 of Owens (2015) and other peer-reviewed references on organizational conflict and effective communication, complete the conflict management activity on pp. 336–338.

2. Write a paper on organizational conflict and effective communication. Include in your paper a brief reflection on the following:

·

· Reflect on your scores and describe your style for dealing with conflict.

· Are your scores what you would expect?

· Do you feel your styles of dealing with conflict will help or hinder you as a principal? How so?

· What can a leader do to improve his/her ability to resolve organizational conflict and improve communication skills?

Submission Instructions:

· The paper is to be 3–5 pages in length.

· The paper, including in-text citations and the reference page, needs to be in current APA format.

· It should be clear and concise. Points will be deducted for improper grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors.

· The use of first and second persons in most formal writing is not acceptable in most courses, and particularly in this one. Your academic and research papers are considered “formal writing”. This assignment should be written in the third person only, and free of contractions.

Reflective Activities

1. Handling Conflict: Complete the following four cases that make up the conflict management activity by author Allan Dornseif ( 1996 ). Please place the number 5 for your most likely response, the number 4 (next most likely), to 1 (least likely) next to the courses of action you would take under each of the four cases that follow. Answer based on what you would most likely do if you were the person described in the situation.

Case One

Pete is the lead teacher of a five-teacher middle school teaching team. Recently, he has noticed that Sarah, a teacher from across the hall, has been dropping in on Linda, the reading teacher in Pete’s team, almost every fifth period to borrow something and chat a few minutes. It’s only for a short time, but class noise and attention appear to be worsening. Others on the team seem to have some resentment of the minor intrusion. If you were Pete, you would:

·

· _____ a. Talk to Linda and tell her to limit conversations to break periods.

· _____ b. Ask the principal to tell the other team members to keep their teachers in their own classrooms.

· _____ c. Talk to both teachers the next time you see them together, find out what they are up to, and inform them of the problem as you see it.

· _____ d. Say nothing now; it would be silly to make a big deal out of

Case Two

Ralph is head of the new computerized management system. His department consists of a state-of-the-art computer system and a staff of five. The work is exacting. Inattention or improper procedures could create costly damage to the system, bad output, or a serious breach of confidential information. Ralph suspects that Jim is drinking too much, maybe even on the job; at the least, he appears to be a bit “high.” Ralph feels that he has some strong indications, but he knows he does not have evidence. If you were Ralph, you would:

·

· _____ a. Talk to Jim outright, tell him what you suspect and why, and that you are concerned for him and for the operation of the department.

· _____ b. Ask Jim to keep his habit off the job; what he does on the job is part of your business.

· _____ c. Not confront Jim right now; it might either turn him off the job or drive his drinking further underground.

· _____ d. Tell Jim that drinking on the job is illegal and that if he gets caught you will do everything you can to see that he is fired.

· _____ e. Keep a close eye on Jim to see that he is not making serious mistakes.

Case Three

Sally is the district curriculum specialist and has been appointed by the superintendent to gather data for teaching improvement. On separate occasions, two teachers on the committee have come to her with different suggestions for reporting test results. Because the superintendent will see the progress the teams are making, Paul wants to send the test results directly to the superintendent and then to the teaching teams. Jim thinks the results should go directly to the teaching teams, so they can take corrective action right away. Both ideas seem good; the superintendent has been extremely busy completing this project, and there is no specific procedure for routing the reports. If you were Sally, you would:

·

· _____ a. Decide who is right and ask the other person to go along with the decision.

· _____ b. Wait and see; the best solution will become apparent.

· _____ c. Tell both Paul and Jim not to get uptight about their disagreement. It is not that important.

· _____ d. Get Paul and Jim together and examine both of their ideas closely for the best approach.

· _____ e. Send the data to the superintendent with a copy to the lead teachers (although this approach is a lot more work for staff and will be more expensive).

Case Four

Jean is president of the Parent-Teacher Association (PTA). From time to time in the past, the school council and the staff have “tapped” the PTA for volunteers to augment several projects, which has not been a problem because parents have been very willing to cooperate. Lately, however, there is an almost constant demand for volunteers to help on various new projects. Many parents are no longer available and the rest of the “real workers” must now make up for the shortage. Parents are beginning to complain that they are being used. If you were Jean, you would:

·

· _____ a. Let it go for now; the extra projects will be over soon.

· _____ b. Try to smooth things over with the volunteers, the council, and the principal. Everyone is doing this for the kids, after all. We cannot afford a conflict.

· _____ c. Tell the council and the staff they can each have only two volunteers.

· _____ d. Go to the principal and council chair and talk about how these demands for additional help could best be met without overloading the volunteers.

· _____ e. Go to the council chair and get him to call off or postpone the council’s projects.

· Activity Score Sheet Directions.

·

· For each case, write the number you placed next to each letter. The column with the highest number shows your preferred method of resolving conflict in these types of situations.

A white grid with black and orange text  Description automatically generated

· Now that you have your scores, let’s relate them to the style for dealing with conflict. When faced with a controversy, we often rely on an instinctive approach that reflects our attitudes and behavior. From our background and experiences, most of us have developed an approach that we prefer and with which we are most comfortable as we face potential conflict situations. Two issues are at stake, however, in group conflict situations. The values we assign to these two issues determine our preferred strategy of dealing with conflict. We can approach a potential conflict situation with five possible methods, each of which is described below.

· Reflect on your scores based on the styles of dealing with conflict below. Are your scores what you would expect?

· Muscle

· When using this method, the need for confrontation is high to accomplish goals and establish or maintain one’s status, but it is low in its need to maintain harmonious feelings and smooth working relationships. This style is assertive, aggressive, and competitive, which creates a win-lose situation. People using this approach often feel they have moral certitude in their position. “I am the boss. Just do it!”

· Most people view this approach as one that other people use, not themselves. Because more people rely on a muscle approach, however, it may be an unconscious personal choice.

· Reconciliation

· Reconciliation is the opposite of using muscle. Here the concern for people, feelings, and smooth working relationships is high, while the need to accomplish goals and maintain status is low. This style is one of accommodating, giving in, and acquiescing to preserve relationships while resolving the conflict, at least temporarily. Sometimes we say “agreeing to disagree” or “peaceful coexistence.” Usually, it means that we quietly sweep the issue under the rug and hope it stays there (it rarely does).

· Harmony

· Bargaining or negotiation is about equal in its need to maintain harmony in relationships and to accomplish goals. It is a “middle ground,” aimed at achieving compromise in order to resolve conflict. This approach is used when the pressure to win is not too great, and the parties find it possible to work out an equitable bargain or to “split the difference.” In this situation, th

· Retreat

· Avoiding or withdrawal is the other end of the muscle approach. It is low on both the need to maintain relationships and the need to accomplish goals. This approach is aimed at not becoming involved with conflict and the strong feelings it may generate. Retreat is usually a temporary solution.

· Collaboration

· Solving problems through the collaboration of people and groups attempting to reach consensus on issues is high both on the need to maintain relationships and the need to accomplish goals. It is aimed at finding a new set of goals that incorporate the ideas and concerns of both parties, which leads to growth in the working relationship. This style stresses working together for a mutual solution to conflicts.

· Facing the issues together, all parties need a strong commitment to finding a solution to which all can agree. This approach requires a high investment of energy with no guarantee that the problem can be solved effectively. It is the most positive approach, however, which engenders trust. Its success makes it more likely to be used in future conflict situations.

· Each of these approaches has its own advantages and disadvantages, its strengths and weaknesses. In itself, no one style is “better” than another. However, each approach has a different thrust and different consequences. Constructive conflict management calls for the ability to read the situation and apply the best strategy.

Different stages of conflict may call for different approaches. In the initial stages of bargaining, for example, both parties are likely to use muscle to establish the issues in which they are most interested. Later, as bargaining continues, each party must assume a negotiating style if a compromise is to be reached. If the parties can develop a mutual trust, the problem-solving approach of collaboration is best for the long term.

· Review Louis Pondy’s three basic types of latent conflict. For each type of conflict (competition for scarce resources, autonomy, and goal divergence), provide an example from your experience. Using Kenneth Thomas’s model of conceptualizing conflict, identify the type of orientations involved in each scenario. Who were the players in the conflict, and what strategies did they and the organizational leaders use to respond to the conflict? Did the outcomes have positive or negative effects on organizational health?

·  Review the critical incident below, and apply the knowledge you learned from this chapter to respond to the questions.

·  Working on Your Game Plan. Meetings with staff members present prime opportunities for educational leaders to engage in conflict management. In school meetings, however, conflict is often latent: unrecognized, “papered over,” ignored and thus denied, or simply not acknowledged. Latent conflict is almost impossible to manage productively. Therefore, a first step in managing conflict is to make the conflict manifest: Acknowledge it; get it on the table so that it can be described, discussed, and managed. A common problem in school staff meetings, however, is that people behave in tacitly agreed-on ways to prevent conflict from being acknowledged and managed. As described in this chapter, this response is ordinarily attributable to the fear of hostility.

Reflect on your own experience with staff meetings at school now that you have read this chapter. Prepare three key coaching tips that you might offer a school principal for improving the planning and conducting of staff meetings and thus incorporating conflict management strategies and tactics. Start each of your coaching tips with a specific recommended action or procedure. Then describe your rationale for recommending the action.

Module 4: Lecture Materials & Resources

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icon   Leadership & Decision Making

Read and watch the lecture resources & materials below early in the week to help you respond to the discussion questions and to complete your assignment(s).

(Note: The citations below are provided for your research convenience. Students should always cross-reference the current APA guide for correct styling of citations and references in their academic work.)

Read

· Owens, R. G., & Valesky, T. C. (2015).

· Chapter 8: Organizational Change

· Owens, R. G., & Valesky, T. C. (2015). Organizational behavior in education: Leadership and school reform (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson

 

Watch

None.

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Supplemental Materials & Resources

· Positive school leadershipLinks to an external site. Murphy, J., Louis, K. S., & Smylie, M. (2017). Positive school leadership. Phi Delta Kappan, 99(1), 21-24. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031721717728273

· LGBTQ+ visibility in the K-12 curriculumLinks to an external site. Moorhead, L. (2018). LGBTQ+ visibility in the K–12 curriculum. Phi Delta Kappan, 100(2), 22-26. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031721718803565

Additional References:

Bucata, G., Rizescu, A.-M., & Barsan, L.-N. (2021). Considerations on Conflict Management during Organizational Change.  Journal of Defense Resources Management12(1), 229–236.

Dobržinskienė, R., & Palaitytė, D. (2023). Effective Communication with Persons of Different Behavioral Types.  Public Security & Public Order / Visuomenes Saugumas Ir Viesoji Tvarka34, 57–70. https://doi.org/10.13165/PSPO-23-34-11

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EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION WITH PERSONS OF DIFFERENT

BEHAVIORAL TYPES

Rasa DOBRŽINSKIENĖ Mykolas Romeris University

Maironio str. 27, LT 44211 Kaunas, Lithuania

E-mail: [email protected]

ORCID ID: 0000-0001-6590-4164

Dominyka PALAITYTĖ Mykolas Romeris University

Maironio str. 27, LT 44211 Kaunas, Lithuania

E-mail: [email protected]

ORCID ID: 0009-0001-4924-7659

DOI: 10.13165/PSPO-23-34-11

Abstract. When it comes to communication with individuals of different behavioral types, it can be noticed that

there is a lack of relevant, generalized information. The recommendations for communication with different types

of behavior are not systematic and there are only few of them or they have been created a long time ago. Knowing

how to communicate effectively with different types of people is very useful for all civilians, but it is even more

important for police officers because they are the moral role models for the public who trust the police. The lack

of this knowledge can lead to the emergence of conflict, limit the possibilities of obtaining the necessary

information and have negative communication consequences. Taking this into account, the aim is to reveal the

effective communication methods used by police officers with people of different behavioral types. The object of

the work is the effective communication of police officers with persons of different behavior types, and it is based

on the applied methods of scientific literature analysis, questionnaire, comparative analysis, and modeling.

Communication is an exchange of information which is implemented by a system of signs or symbols. The

effectiveness of communication is determined by the personality of the interlocutor, understanding and application

of communication goals, tasks, functions in the conversation, etc. In addition, in order to achieve effective

communication, it is important to use different communication methods for different types of individuals. In each

case, human behavior must be considered and the method of communication to be chosen must be evaluated. What

is more, after conducting an empirical study and reviewing its results, it can be observed that efficiency is achieved

when he person communicates politely, creates trust, the interlocutor is respected and not judged. When

communicating with troublemakers, the officer should remain polite, listen to the person, ask straightforward

questions, avoid using complex words, allow negative and positive thoughts to be expressed, show empathy, and

build trust.

Keywords: communication, effectivness, different types of behaviour, police officers.

Introduction

According to J. Locke, “communication is inherently problematic because it is never

perfect and the transmitted ideas never properly coincide in the minds of the sender and

receiver” (Locke, 2000). Obviously, the uniqueness of each person during communication

process can lead to problems of interpretation, meaning, or understanding, but dealing with

certain behavior types, such as conflicted individuals, makes communication even more

difficult. This is especially relevant in the activities of police officers, because many of them

communicate with various individuals on a daily basis, so there is a need to identify which

communication methods of police officers are effective when communicating with individuals

with different types of behavior.

Describing various aspects of effective communication with individuals of different

behavioral types, it can be noticed that there is a lack of relevant, generalized information. The

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presented recommendations regarding communication with persons of different types of

behavior are not systematized, moreover, there are not many recommendations and they were

created a long time ago (R. Kočiūnas, 1995, R. Burda and S. Kuklianskis, 2007). Knowing how

to effectively communicate with people of different behavior types is especially important for

police officers. The lack of this knowledge can lead to the emergence of conflict, limit the

possibilities of obtaining the necessary information and have negative consequences for

communication. In order to achieve the effectiveness of communication, it is necessary to

understand which methods of communication are the most appropriate communicating with

persons of different types of behavior (Guodienė, 2013).

The scientific literature is full of information about different types of behavior: L.

Bulotaitė and O. Zamalijeva (2016) describe the type of risky behavior, J. Navarro and T. S.

Poynter (2015) analyze dangerous types of behavior, A. Clapperton et al. (2019) provide a

characterization of suicidal individuals, but there is little information on how to effectively

communicate with different types of behavior. Therefore, this article aims to discuss the

characteristics of behavior of different types of persons and to analyze the methods of effective

communication with these persons in police activities. Taking this into account, the aim of this

article is to examine the effective communication methods used by police officers with

individuals with different types of behavior. Accordingly, the object of the article is the

effective communication of police officers with persons of different behavior types. To

implement the research, there are used the methods of scientific literature analysis, survey, and

comparative analysis.

Concept of communication

Good communication skills bring benefits both in everyday life and in professional life.

However, if communication with a person does not take into account their personality,

behaviour, beliefs or even cultural differences, it can be futile and even harmful. Obviously,

communication with different types of people is also different, so effective communication with

different types of behaviour requires recognising the type of behaviour of the person,

understanding the purpose, objectives and functions of each conversation, mastering the

elements of effective communication, and knowing not only how to disseminate information

effectively but also how to receive it.

The concept of communication is understood in many different and broad ways. The

concept has more than one definition. R. Lekavičienė et al. (2010) argue that communication is

the use of a system of signs. This system of signs helps to exchange information, which,

according to the authors, is not only knowledge, but also much more – attitudes, feelings, and

opinions. According to V. Pruskus, communication can be understood as the process of

transmitting and receiving wishes, thoughts, feelings, ideas, facts, values, in other words,

information. This process takes place between people in various ways – electrical signals, oral,

written or non-verbal, which the author explains as gestures, facial expressions and posture.

The author stresses that one important detail in the communication process is that the person to

whom the information is addressed not only receives it, but also understands and accepts it.

According to V. Puodžiūnas (2013), communication is a process in which information is

exchanged between subjects using common systems of signs or behaviours. Thus, it can be

argued that the exchange of information is the most important part of communication, and that

the exchange takes place in a system of signs or symbols. The communication process has

certain functions and purposes for which it takes place. One of these is communication

effectiveness.

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The effectiveness of communication depends on many factors. These may include the

personality of the interlocutor, the perception and application of communication goals,

objectives and functions in the conversation. In each case of communication with a person, it

is known what the purpose of the communication is, i.e. what is being achieved in each

conversation. For communication to be effective and useful, it is necessary to understand the

objectives of the communication and to pursue them during the conversation. Communication

is not effective if the objectives of communication are not understood. It is not enough to know

them; it is important to apply them to each interlocutor. If the objectives are not applied or not

applied properly, the interlocutor, especially the conflict type, may not understand the

information communicated, may interpret it in his own way and may become aggressive. In

such cases, it may be very difficult or impossible to restore the effectiveness of communication.

Thus, communication requires attention to the following tasks: “accurate and adequate

formulation of information; persuasiveness of self-presentation (representation); modeling and

regulation of relationships” (Puodžiūnas, 2013). Among other things, according to Valdas

Pruskus, effective communication is determined by the elements of communicative

competence. One of them is “the ability to interpret the specific signals of a particular culture”

(Pruskus, 2010). When communicating with a person from another culture, it is necessary to

respect that culture and take into account different traditions and customs. According to

Gediminas Bučiūnas, knowledge of immigrants’ customs and religious attitudes can be one of

the conditions for a civil servants proper performance of his/her duties, which will help to avoid

conflict situations in the future (Bučiūnas, 2015). Other elements of communicative

competence are “the ability to orient which part of the time should be devoted to listening and

which to speaking, the ability to adequately express thoughts and understand the interlocutor,

to direct the speech in the right direction, <…> the ability to use verbal and non-verbal means

of cultural reception, the ability to adapt to the social status of communicants and intercultural

differences, the ability to adjust one’s own behaviour in time when interacting with

interlocutors”

The post Reflect on your scores and describe your style for dealing with conflict. Are your scores what you would expect? Do you feel your style of dealing with conflict will help or hin first appeared on Writeden.

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