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Research the life/background of Justin Bieber. This is the background for your argument. You will then use Berry’s model and discuss whether you think Justin Bieber is assimilated, integrat

Research the life/background of Justin Bieber. This is the background for your argument. You will then use Berry’s model and discuss whether you think Justin Bieber is assimilated, integrated, marginalized or separated to mainstream American culture. Defend your argument with specific examples from the Bieber  life or from his behaviors. You may discuss what you consider to be “mainstream American culture” as part of this argument. Also discuss how the level of acculturation may have or be affecting the person or groups relationship with larger American society.

  

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    Module-6-Acculturation-and-Identity-Theory.pdf

Module 6 Acculturation and Identity Theory

ACCULTURATION

Module 6: Part 1

Acculturation • Acculturation is a process • Acculturation can occur for any group trying

to adjust or adapt to the dominant or host culture

• Acculturation is bi-directional (It goes both ways)

• Discrimination will reduce adaptation • Acculturation research has focused on

immigrants to the United States

Is it considered to be of value to maintain the traditional cultural identity and

characteristics?

“YES” “NO”

Is it considered to be of value to develop and maintain relationships with members of the new culture?

“YES”

“NO”

BICULTURALISM ASSIMILATION

SEPARATION MARGINALIZATION

Four modes of acculturation

Issue 1

Issue 2

Types of Acculturation (Berry)

• Assimilationist • Separationist • Marginalist • Integrationist

The Acculturation Process

Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans

(ARSMA) by Cuellar, Harris, and Jasso (1980). • What language do you speak? (LFU) • What language do you prefer? (LFU) • How do you identify yourself? (EPI) • Which ethnic identification does (did) your mother use? (EPI) • Which ethnic identification does (did) your father use’? (EPI) • What was the ethnic origin of the friends and peers you had, as a child up to age 6? (EI) • What was the ethnic. origin of the friends and peers you had, as a child from 6 to 18? (EI) • Whom do you now associate with in the outside community? (EI) • What is your music preference? (language) (LFU) • What is your TV viewing preference? (language) (LFU) • What is your movie preference? (language) (LFU) • What is the nearest generation of the family member born in Mexico? (GP) • Where were you raised? (CH) • What contact have you had with Mexico? (e.g., lived there, visited, occasional communications with

people there) (CH) • What is your food preference? (EI) • In what language do you think? (LFU) • In which language do you read better (Spanish or English)? (LFU) • In which language do you write better (Spanish or English)? (LFU) • If you consider yourself a Mexican, Chicano, Mexican American member of La Raza, or however you

identify this group. how much pride do you have in this group? (EPI) • How would you rate yourself? (very Mexican, mostly Mexican, bicultural, mostly anglicized, very

anglicized) (EPI)

Note. LFU = Language Familiarity and Usage: EPI = Ethnic Pride and Identity; EI = Ethnic Interaction; GP = Generational Proximity; and CH = Cultural Heritage.

Individua l Stress

low SES or drop in SES

family differences in acculturation

“forced” migration

age

prejudice and discrimination

language deficits

Acculturative Stress

Factors affecting acculturative stress

Acculturation of ethnic minorities (LaFramboise) • Assimilation: absorption into dominant culture • Acculturated: competence in second culture

without complete acceptance • Fusion: process of combining cultures creating a

somewhat new culture • Alternation: alternating between one’ culture of

origin and the host culture depending upon the context

• Multicultural: distinct cultural identities are maintained within single multicultural social structures

IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT THEORIES

Module 6: Part 2

Identity Development (Phinney)

• May be viewed from the perspective of four statuses

• Statuses vary along two key areas (1) exploration and (2) commitment

• The four statuses include:

Diffused Status Individuals have neither explored nor committed to a particular identity meaning.

Foreclosed Status Individuals firmly committed to an identity based on influential others (e.g., parents) without engaging in exploration.

Moratorium Status Individuals are actively exploring the meaning of their ethnic identities but have not reached a commitment to a specific definition.

Achieved Status Individuals who have actively engaged in exploration and have committed to a specific definition of their ethnic identity.

Identity status categories (Marcia)

Identity Achievement Moratorium

Identity Foreclosure

Identity Diffusion

Present

Present

Absent

AbsentE X P L O R A T I O N

COMMITMENT

Implications of Identity Approach

• Has real-world utility for understanding differences across the lifespan:

o Adolescents were more likely to be in moratorium and less likely to be achieved than college students and adults.

o College student and adults were more likely to be in the achieved status.

• Reveals interplay between identity development and racial awareness: o Achieved individuals considered race to be more important than

diffused, foreclosed, and moratorium individuals. o Moratorium and foreclosed individuals were more likely to perceive

race to be central to self-concepts than diffused individuals. o Moratorium or foreclosed individuals felt more positive about their

racial group than diffused individuals.

• Mainstream-Minority approach

• Multicultural approach

Two approaches to non-White racial identity

Multicultural approach

• Society is thought to consist of a number of different cultural groups, in which no single group is dominant in all regions or in all social spheres and smaller groups are engaged in complex patterns of involvement and mutual influences with the larger groups

• Racial/ethnic identity is seen as a combination of personal attitudes and experiences with both majority and minority groups.

Mainstream-Minority approach

• Society is assumed to consist of a dominant culture (the “mainstream”), and a number of subordinate groups

• Racial identity is a developmental process in which individuals traverse from one stage to another as a result of experiences with either the mainstream culture (in the case of the minority groups) or with one or more of the minority groups (in the case of the white majority)

Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model

• Conformity • Dissonance & Appreciating • Resistance & Immersion • Introspection • Integrative Awareness

(Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, 1998)

Mainstream-Minority approach (cont.)

• Four factors influence strength of racial/ethnic identity o Size o Power o Discrimination o Appearance

• Dominant group’s traditional aim: Erase minority group consciousness (Why?)

http://core.ecu.edu/soci/juskaa/SOCI2110/Lectures/Race/sld007.htm

Copyright Arunas Juska, Ph.D.

White Racial Identity

• Contact • Disintegration • Reintegration • Pseudoindependence • Immersion-Emersion • Autonomy

(Helms, 1994)

White Racial Consciousness

• White racial consciousness is “the characteristic attitudes held by a person regarding the significance of being White and what that implies in relation to those who do not share White group membership” (p. 3; Bennett, Atkinson, and Rowe, 1993)

• Unachieved o Avoidant types do not consider the issue of race for minorities or themselves. o Dependent types possess a superficial attitude about race as a result of their dependence on

others to define racial beliefs. o Dissonant types possess an uncertainty about their racial attitudes and racial issues.

• Achieved o The dominative types possess a strong ethnocentric perspective of their racial group, which

justifies the dominance of other racial groups. o The conflictive types oppose both the overt discriminatory practices of other racial groups

and any procedures or systems designed to reduce discrimination. o The reactive types acknowledge the existence of racial discrimination and the benefits it

provides to White society. The integrative types possess an integrated sense of their Whiteness while valuing cultural pluralism.

(Pope-Davis, Vandiver, and Stone, 1999)

People of Color Racial Identity

• Conformity (Pre-Encounter) • Dissonance (Encounter) • Immersion/Emersion • Internalization • Integrative Awareness

(Helms, 1994)

Social history of Black racial identity

• Social history dominated by two competing processes

o Deracination (attempt to erase “blackness”) • Decreased collective awareness of issues pertaining to

race/class • Thought to increase acceptance into mainstream society • Decreased probability of group mobilization

o Nigrescence (development of Black identity; French: to become black)

• Early attempts focused on stereotypical psychological profiles o Traditional Negroes (Booker T. Washington) o Agitators, Black Militants (W.E.B Du Bois, Black Panthers)

• In 1970s, emphasis shifted to describing developmental processes

Double Consciousness

“It is a peculiar sensation, this double consciousness, this sense of always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others, of measuring one’s soul by the tape of the world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. One ever feels his twoness, — an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder.”

(W.E.B. Du Bois, Souls of Black Folks, 1903)

Black racial identity development model (Cross, 1971; 1991)

• Stage 1 (Pre-encounter): Person identifies with White people and culture and rejects or devalues Black people and culture (may be diffused or foreclosed)

• Stage 2 (Encounter): Characterized by an emotional personal experience, which fosters need to change (most likely moratorium)

• Stage 3 (Immersion-Emersion): Person completely identifies with Blacks, idealizes Black culture, and abhors all things White (may be moratorium or achieved)

• Stage 4 (Internalization): Person overcomes defensiveness, idealization, and psychological effects of racism and develops a positive and secure Black identity (most likely achieved)

• Stage 5 (Commitment): Person maintains Black identity while resisting the various forms of social oppression (most likely achieved)

Racial Identity: The Case of Malcolm X

• Stage 1 (Pre-encounter)

Person identifies with White people and culture and rejects or devalues Black people and culture

• Stage 2 (Encounter) Characterized by an emotional personal experience, which fosters need to change

• Stage 3 (Immersion-Emersion) Person completely identifies with Blacks, idealizes Black culture, and abhors all things White

• Stage 4 (Internalization) Person overcomes defensiveness, idealization, and psychological effects of racism and develops a positive and secure Black identity

• Stage 5 (Commitment) Person maintains Black identity while resisting the various forms of social oppression

Racial Identity: The Case of Malcolm X

Measuring Racial Identity (Helms & Parham, 1984)

• Preencounter o 31: I feel that black people do not have as much to be proud of as white people do. o 08: I believe that white people look and express themselves better than blacks. o 40: Sometimes, I wish I belonged to the white race.

• Encounter o 3: I am increasing my involvement in Black activities because I don’t feel

comfortable in White environments o 19: I am changing my style of life to fit my new beliefs about Black people o 44. I can’t feel comfortable with either Black people or White people

• Immersion/Emersion o 34: White people can’t be trusted. o 18: I believe that the world should be interpreted from a black perspective. o 23: When I am with people I trust, I often find myself referring to Whites as “honkies,”

“devils,” “pigs”, “white boys” and so forth

• Internalization/Commitment o 06: I involve myself in causes that will help all oppressed people. o 16: I involve myself in social action and political groups even if there are no other blacks

involved.

Black racial identity development model (Cross, 1991; 1995; 2001)

• Pre-Encounter Assimilation: Racial group membership is minimized in favor of identity as an American and an individual.

• Pre-Encounter Miseducation: Internalizes negative or stereotypical portrayals of Black people.

• Pre-Encounter (Racial) Self- Hatred: Experiences profound negative feelings and self- loathing because he or she is Black.

Malcolm X

John Howard Griffin

Black racial identity development model (Cross, 1991; 1995; 2001)

• Immersion-Emersion Anti-White: Persons who are consumed by hatred of White people and White society and will engage Black problems and Black culture but is unpredictable.

• Immersion-Emersion Intense Black Involvement: Hold simplistic and romantic beliefs about Black culture and has an either/or mentality about complex issues.

Black racial identity development model (Cross, 1991; 1995; 2001)

• Internalization Nationalistic: Stresses an Afrocentric perspective and engages Black problems and Black culture.

• Internalization Biculturalist: Gives equal importance to “Americanness” and Africanness (e.g., the comfortable fusion of White and Black cultures). Persons engage in aspects of mainstream culture and still maintains dedication to Black culture.

• Internalization Multiculturalist: Identity spans three or more social categories or frames of reference. Persons feel and are a part of Black culture he or she easily appreciates a wide range of cultural events and activities.

Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model (Sue & Sue, 1990)

• Stage 1 (Conformity): Unequivocal preference for dominant cultural values over their own.

• Stage 2 (Dissonance): Differential experiences challenge his/her self-concept. Denial begins to break down = questioning of the beliefs of the conformity stage.

• Stage 3 (Resistance & Immersion): Complete endorsement of minority-held views, rejection of dominant values of society. Desire to eliminate oppression, considerable guilt & shame that “sold out” his/her own cultural group and/or were involved in oppression.

• Stage 4 (Introspection): Dissatisfaction with rigid group views which may be in conflict with their individual views.

• Stage 5 (Integrative Awareness): Belief that there are acceptable & unacceptable aspects of ALL cultures, but person should determine for themselves what is desirable.

Stage 1: Pre-encounter/conformity

Attitude towards self

Attitude towards other members of the same minority group

Attitude towards members of other minority groups

Attitude towards the dominant group

Cross (1971, 1991)

likes self but race not salient or hates black part of self

group disinterest or group deprecating

discriminatory group- appreciating

Sue & Sue (1990)

likes self but hates ethnic part of self

group- deprecating

discriminatory group- appreciating

Stage 2: Encounter/Dissonance

Attitude towards self

Attitude towards other members of the same minority group

Attitude towards members of other minority groups

Attitude towards the dominant group

Cross (1971, 1991)

anxious, guilty, angry

confused confused angry, resentful

Sue & Sue (1990)

conflict between self- deprecating & appreciating

conflict between group- deprecating & group- appreciating

conflict between dominant-held views & feelings of shared experience

conflict between group- appreciating & group- deprecating

Stage 3: Introspection/Immersion & Emersion

Attitude towards self

Attitude towards other members of the same minority group

Attitude towards members of other minority groups

Attitude towards the dominant group

Cross (1971, 1991)

likes self, but primarily the black part of self

idealization of all things Black but also a “blacker-than- thou” attitude

disinterest uncontrolled rage, hate, prejudice

Sue & Sue (1990)

concern with the basis of self- appreciation

concern with the nature of unequivocal appreciation

concern with ethnocentric basis for judging others

concern with basis of group- deprecation

Stage 4: Resistance and Immersion/Internalization

Attitude towards self

Attitude towards other members of the same minority group

Attitude towards members of other minority groups

Attitude towards the dominant group

Cross (1971, 1991)

self- appreciating

group- appreciating

varies from Black nationalism to multiculturalism

selective appreciation, controlled anger at oppressive systems

Sue & Sue (1990)

self- appreciating

group- appreciating

conflict between feelings of empathy & feelings of culturocentrism

group- deprecating

Stage 5: Integrative Awareness

Attitude towards self

Attitude towards other members of the same minority group

Attitude towards members of other minority groups

Attitude towards the dominant group

Cross (1971, 1991)

self- appreciating

group- appreciating

varies from Black nationalism to multiculturalism

Same as stage 4 but with commitment to Black community and/or racial justice

Sue & Sue (1990)

self- appreciating

group- appreciating

group- appreciating

selective appreciation

Demographic Differences

• Gender Men theorized to have a harder time embracing identity change (Munford, 1994) but could not find empirical data

• Class Higher income associated with higher pre-encounter scores and less internalization (Parham and Williams, 1993)

• Education (no significant relationship)

Biracial identity

Cross (Langston Hughes) My old man’s a white old man And my old mother’s black. If ever I cursed my white old man I take my curses back. If ever I cursed my black old mother And wished she were in hell, I’m sorry for that evil wish And now I wish her well My old man died in a fine big house. My ma died in a shack. I wonder were I’m going to die, Being neither white nor black?

Asian American Identity Development

• Ethnic Awareness • White Identification • Awakening to Social Political Consciousness • Redirection • Incorporation

(Kim, 1981)

Latino/Hispanic American Identity Development Models

• Causal • Cognitive • Consequence • Working Through • Successful Resolution

(Ruiz, 1990)

Case Studies for Discussion • Helms (pg. 192) ‘White Male 1’ [Marko]

o “my parents are Ukrainian and they just came over. They’re first generation immigrants I’m the first one from here so consequently I got tons of Ukrainian culture, maybe more than I didn’t want…I got it shoved down my throat. But my children on the other had, you know, more than likely the person that I marry won’t be Ukrainian. How much culture that they’ll actually get is, they might get a little sprinkling her and there, but I seriously doubt that it’s going to be even a twelfth of what I got.”

(Helms, 1995)

Case Studies for Discussion • Sue & Sue (pg. 205-206) ‘Nisei Student (2nd

generation)’ [Jane] o “That is because I didn’t want to have anything to do

with being Japanese American. Most of the Japanese images I saw were negative…To accept myself as a total person, I also have to accept my Asian identity as well. But what is it? I just don’t know. Are they the images given me through the filter of White America, or are they the values and desires of my parents?…For all my life I have attempted to fit into White society. I have tried to convince myself that I was different, that I was like all my other White classmates, and that prejudice and discrimination didn’t exist for me. I wonder how I could have been so oblivious to prejudice and racism. I now realize that I cannot escape from my ethnic heritage and from the way people see me. Yet I don’t know how to go about resolving many of my feelings and conflicts.”

(Helms, 1995)

Ruth Okimoto • Anger

o We were in Poston at this camp, this internment camp as they called it. And we would go to school and military guards, of course, surrounding the camp guarding us. And the classrooms were very inadequate at first. They barely had tables, no chairs. And really no educational material, no books, paper, pencils, the bare necessities of school and those, gradually they began to get them as people on the outside were donating things. But we would go to school as children, pledge allegiance to the flag while guards were watching us, right? And we would sing “God Bless America” and all these things that we were doing on the outside, but it became very absurd doing it inside the camp when you’re at the mercy of the government and basically prisoners of war and yet you’re pledging allegiance to the very government that put you there. So at the time, as children, I didn’t understand that, of course. We sang, we pledged allegiance, and did all of that. But it was later as I went to school, in high school, later on as a young adult I started to think about that. And that’s when the anger and the injustice of what happened really began to surface.

• Identity o Today I think I appreciate being an American, but I also appreciate my Japanese cultural

background. And for many, many years, because of the camp experience, I tried to suppress my Japanese-ness. Refused to learn the language when my mother tried to teach us shortly after the war. But I think that I’m not just an American, I’m a Japanese American, and no matter where I go, they will first see my Japanese face. So I can’t escape that.

http://www.itvs.org/facetoface/flash.html

http://www.itvs.org/facetoface/flash.html

Satsuki Ina • 12/7/41 and 9/11/01

o Shortly after September 11, one of the leaders of the Muslim community center contacted me because someone had told him about the work I had done with Children of the Camps. And he said, “In our community center we have many children who are being bullied at school and we’d like you to come and talk to the parents.” And I said, I would love to, I mean, for me it had a lot of meaning for me to be able to help children who experienced the same thing I experienced as a kid. Being harassed and bullied because of something that was completely outside of my control, but because I looked like the bad guy. So the stories that the children told us, it made me very sad. That the things that the other children were saying to them were things that clearly came from adults. That they had heard their parents say, that they hadcharacterized the enemy as dark-skinned and wearing turbans and anybody who looked like that. A little kid said, “They’re calling me Bin Laden.” You know it’s totally irrational and inappropriate and all of that, but it seemed to happen so quickly.

• Identity o After we left camp we were advised not to go back to the West Coast ’cause they said there was too much

hostility and no housing and my parents weren’t likely to be hired for any kind of work, so we went to Cincinnati. And it was primarily an all-white neighborhood, mostly very low income. I was starting nursery school and kindergarten. When my mother came to pick me up I remember the teacher saying that, “You know you have to change her name. Because if you want her to be a real American, she should have an American name.” So they changed my name from Satsuki to Sandy, so I was called Sandy &#x2019

The post Research the life/background of Justin Bieber. This is the background for your argument. You will then use Berry’s model and discuss whether you think Justin Bieber is assimilated, integrat first appeared on Writeden.

Research the life/background of Justin Bieber. This is the background for your argument. You will then use Berry’s model and discuss whether you think Justin Bieber is assimilated, integrat
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